The traditional fundus camera has served as a diagnostic instrument of retinal disease for several decades. However, the resolution of images obtained with the fundus camera is limited to approximately 15-20 µm by the imperfections of the ocular optics. These imperfections can be surpassed using adaptive optics, thus providing an en face view with resolution on the order of microns of retinal features such as photoreceptors and capillaries as well as morphological changes induced by aging or disease.


The image region with high resolution is limited in retinal images obtained with conventional adaptive optics. In order to obtain high-resolution wide field retinal images, our solution is to use multi-conjugate AO. Although preceded by theoretical investigations from other research groups, the pioneering work of applying the concept to retinal imaging was realized through a research collaboration between our research group at the University of Gothenburg and the Telescope Group at Lund University.


The original MCAO demonstrator (Fig. 1) was first miniaturized (Fig. 2) and verified before building the current proof-of-concept prototype (Fig. 3).

Fig. 1 MCAO demonstrator

Fig. 2. Miniaturized demonstrator

Fig. 3. Proof-of-concept prototype

For further information and example images, please visit :

Previous research support


Swedish Research Council (grant no. 2003-6254)

Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Memorial Fund (grant no. MAW 2009-0053)

VINNOVA (grant no. 2010-00518)

De Blindas Vänner i göteborg, DBV

Stiftelsen Kronprinsessan Margaretas Arbetsnämnd för synskadade, KMA



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